AS-29 of ICAI on “Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets” prescribes for appropriate measurement and recognistion/ accounting treatment of provisions, contingent liabilities/ assets, along with required disclosure in the notes to financial statements, to enable users understand their nature, timing and amount. Download PDF Copy of AS-29, from the link below:
1. This Standard should be applied in accounting for provisions and contingent liabilities and in dealing with contingent assets, except:
(a) those resulting from financial instruments that are carried at fair value;
(b) those resulting from executory contracts, except where the contract is onerous;
(i) An ‘onerous contract’ is a contract in which the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it. Thus, for a contract to qualify as an onerous contract, the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligation under the contract should exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it. The unavoidable costs under a contract reflect the least net cost of exiting from the contract, which is the lower of the cost of fulfilling it and any compensation or penalties arising from failure to fulfill it.
(ii) If an enterprise has a contract that is onerous, the present obligation under the contract is recognised and measured as a provision as per this Standard.
(c) those arising in insurance enterprises from contracts with policy-holders; and
(d) those covered by another Accounting Standard.
2. This Standard applies to financial instruments (including guarantees) that are not carried at fair value.
3. Executory contracts are contracts under which neither party has performed any of its obligations or both parties have partially performed their obligations to an equal extent. This Standard does not apply to executory contracts unless they are onerous.
4. This Standard applies to provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets of insurance enterprises other than those arising from contracts with policy-holders.
5. Where another Accounting Standard deals with a specific type of provision, contingent liability or contingent asset, an enterprise applies that Standard instead of this Standard. For example, certain types of provisions are also addressed in Accounting Standards on:
(a) construction contracts (see AS 7, Construction Contracts);
(b) taxes on income (see AS 22, Accounting for Taxes on Income);
(c) leases (see AS 19, Leases). However, as AS 19 contains no specific requirements to deal with operating leases that have become onerous, this Standard applies to such cases; and
(d) retirement benefits (see AS 15, Accounting for Retirement Benefits in the Financial Statements of Employers).
6. Some amounts treated as provisions may relate to the recognition of revenue, for example where an enterprise gives guarantees in exchange for a fee. This Standard does not address the recognition of revenue. AS 9, Revenue Recognition, identifies the circumstances in which revenue is recognised and provides practical guidance on the application of the recognition criteria. This Standard does not change the requirements of AS 9.
7. This Standard defines provisions as liabilities which can be measured only by using a substantial degree of estimation. The term ‘provision’ is also used in the context of items such as depreciation, impairment of assets and doubtful debts: these are adjustments to the carrying amounts of assets and are not addressed in this Standard.
8. Other Accounting Standards specify whether expenditures are treated as assets or as expenses. These issues are not addressed in this Standard. Accordingly, this Standard neither prohibits nor requires capitalisation of the costs recognised when a provision is made.
9. This Standard applies to provisions for restructuring (including discontinuing operations). Where a restructuring meets the definition of a discontinuing operation, additional disclosures are required by AS 24, Discontinuing Operations.